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Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Why are Some Students Difficult in Listening

1.     They are trying to understand every word
Despite the fact that we can cope with missing whole chunks of speech having a conversation on a noisy street in our own language, many people don't seem to be able to transfer that skill easily to a second language. One method of tackling this is to show them how to identify the important words that they need to listen out for. In English this is shown in an easy-to-spot way by which words in the sentence are stressed (spoken louder and longer). Another is to give them one very easy task that you know they can do even if they don't get 90% of what is being said to build up their confidence, such as identifying the name of a famous person or spotting something that is mentioned many times.



2.     They get left behind trying to work out what a previous word meant

This is one aspect of the problem above that all people speaking a foreign language have experienced at one time or another. This often happens when you hear a word you half remember and find you have completely lost the thread of what was being said by the time you remember what it means, but can also happen with words you are trying to work out that sound similar to something in your language, words you are trying to work out from the context or words you have heard many times before and are trying to guess the meaning of once and for all. In individual listenings you can cut down on this problem with vocab pre-teach and by getting students to talk about the same topic first to bring the relevant vocabulary for that topic area nearer the front of their brain. You could also use a listening that is in shorter segments or use the pause button to give their brains a chance to catch up, but teaching them the skill of coping with the multiple demands of listening and working out what words mean is not so easy. One training method is to use a listening or two to get them to concentrate just on guessing words from context. Another is to load up the tasks even more by adding a logic puzzle or listening and writing task, so that just listening and trying to remember words seems like an easier option. Finally, spend a lot of time revising vocabulary and doing skills work where they come into contact with it and use it, and show students how to do the same in their own time, so that the amount of half remembered vocab is much less.

3.     They just don't know the most important words
Again, doing vocabulary pre-teaching before each listening as a short term solution and working on the skill of guessing vocab from context can help, but please make sure that you practice this with words that can actually be guessed from context (a weakness of many textbooks) and that you work on that with reading texts for a while to build up to the much more difficult skill of guessing vocab and listening at the same time. The other solution is simply to build up their vocabulary and teach them how they can do the same in their own time with vocabulary lists, graded readers, monolingual dictionary use etc.

4.     They don't recognise the words that they know
If you have a well-graded textbook for your class, this is probably a more common (and more tragic) problem than not knowing the vocabulary at all. Apart from just being too busy thinking about other things and missing a word, common reasons why students might not recognise a word include not distinguishing between different sounds in English (e.g. /l/ and /r/ in "led" and "red" for many Asians), or conversely trying to listen for differences that do not exist, e.g. not knowing words like "there", "their" and "they're" are homophones. Other reasons are problems with word stress, sentence stress, and sound changes when words are spoken together in natural speech such as weak forms. What all this boils down to is that sometimes pronunciation work is the most important part of listening comprehension skills building.

5.     They have problems with different accents
In a modern textbook, students have to not only deal with a variety of British, American and Australian accents, but might also have Indian or French thrown in. Whilst this is theoretically useful if or when they get a job in a multinational company, it might not be the additional challenge they need right now- especially if they studied exclusively American English at school. Possibilities for making a particular listening with a tricky accent easier include rerecording it with some other teachers before class, reading all or part of the tapescript out in your (hopefully more familiar and therefore easier) accent, and giving them a listening task where the written questions help out like gap fills. If it is an accent they particularly need to understand, e.g., if they are sorting out the outsourcing to India, you could actually spend part of a lesson on the characteristics of that accent. In order to build up their ability to deal with different accents in the longer term, the best way is just to get them listening to a lot of English, e.g. TV without dubbing or BBC World Service Radio. You might also want to think about concentrating your pronunciation work on sounds that they need to understand many different accents rather than one, and on concentrating on listenings with accents that are relevant for that particular group of students, e.g. the nationality of their head office.

6.     They lack listening stamina/ they get tired
This is again one that anyone who has lived in a foreign country knows well- you are doing fine with the conversation or movie until your brain seems to reach saturation point and from then on nothing goes in until you escape to the toilet for 10 minutes. The first thing you'll need to bear in mind is to build up the length of the texts you use (or the lengths between pauses) over the course in exactly the same way as you build up the difficulty of the texts and tasks. You can make the first time they listen to a longer text a success and therefore a confidence booster by doing it in a part of the lesson and part of the day when they are most alert, by not overloading their brains with new language beforehand, and by giving them a break or easy activity before they start. You can build up their stamina by also making the speaking tasks longer and longer during the term, and they can practice the same thing outside class by watching an English movie with subtitles and taking the subtitles off for longer and longer periods each time.

7.     They have a mental block
This could be not just a case of a student having struggled with badly graded listening texts in school, exams or self-study materials, but even of a whole national myth that people from their country find listening to English difficult. Whatever the reason, before you can build up their skills they need their confidence back. The easiest solution is just to use much easier texts, perhaps using them mainly as a prompt to discussion or grammar presentations to stop them feeling patronized. You can disguise other easy listening comprehension tasks as pronunciation work on linked speech etc. in the same way.

8.     They are distracted by background noise
Being able to cope with background noise is another skill that does not easily transfer from L1 and builds up along with students' listening and general language skills. As well as making sure the tape doesn't have lots of hiss or worse (e.g. by recording tape to tape at normal speed not double speed, by using the original or by adjusting the bass and treble) and choosing a recording with no street noise etc, you also need to cut down on noise inside and outside the classroom. Plan listenings for when you know it will be quiet outside, e.g. not at lunchtime or when the class next door is also doing a listening. Cut down on noise inside the classroom by doing the first task with books closed and pens down. Boost their confidence by letting them do the same listening on headphones and showing them how much easier it is. Finally, when they start to get used to it, give them an additional challenge by using a recording with background noise such as a cocktail party conversation.

9.     They can't cope with not having images
Young people nowadays, they just can't cope without multimedia! Although having students who are not used to listening to the radio in their own language can't help, most students find not having body language and other cues to help a particular difficulty in a foreign language. Setting the scene with some photos of the people speaking can help, especially tasks where they put the pictures in order as they listen, and using video instead makes a nice change and is a good way of making skills such as guessing vocab from context easier and more natural.

10. They have hearing problems
As well as people such as older students who have general difficulty in hearing and need to be sat close to the cassette, you might also have students who have problems hearing particular frequencies or who have particular problems with background noise. As well as playing around with the graphic equaliser and doing the other tips above for background noise, you could also try setting most listening tasks as homework and/ or letting one or more students read from the tapescript as they listen.

11. They can't tell the difference between the different voices
This was the problem that took me longest to twig, but voices that are clearly distinct to a native speaker can be completely confusing for a non-native speaker. I haven't quite worked out why those problems occur on some occasions and not on others, but the native speaker could be identifying a lisp, an accent or a difference in range of tone that escapes a student. You can avoid these problems by using texts with one woman and one man, or you can practice them with tasks where the students only have to count how many times the speaker changes.

Apakah Pengertian Semiotik

2.1. Pengertian Semiotik
Semiotik atau semiotika berasal dari kata Yunani semeion yang berarti “tanda”. Istilah semeion tampaknya diturunkan dari kedokteran hipokratik atau asklepiadik dengan perhatiannya pada simtomatologi dan diagnostik inferensial (Sobur, 2004:95).  Secara terminologis, semiotik adalah cabang ilmu yang berurusan dengan dengan pengkajian tanda dan segala sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan tanda, seperti sistem tanda dan proses yang berlaku bagi tanda (van Zoest, 1993:1). Semiotik merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari sederetan luas obyek -obyek, peristiwa-peristiwa, seluruh kebudayaan sebagai tanda. Ahli sastra Teew (1984:6) mendefinisikan semiotik adalah tanda sebagai tindak komunikasi dan kemudian disempurnakannya menjadi model sastra yang mempertanggungjawabkan semua faktor dan aspek hakiki untuk pemahaman gejala susastra sebagai alat komunikasi yang khas di dalam masyarakat mana pun.
Semiotik umumnya didefinisikan sebagai teori filsafat umum yang berkenaan dengan produksi tanda-tanda dan simbol-simbol sebagai bagian dari sistem kode yang digunakan untuk mengomunikasikan informasi. Semiotik meliputi tanda-tanda visual dan verbal serta tactile dan olfactory (semua tanda atau sinyal yang bisa diakses dan bisa diterima oleh seluruh indera yang kita miliki) ketika tanda-tanda tersebut membentuk sistem kode yang secara sistematis menyampaikan informasi atau pesan secara tertulis di setiap kegiatan dan perilaku manusia.
Para ahli semiotik modern mengatakan bahwa analisis semiotik modern telah di warnai dengan dua nama yaitu seorang linguis yang berasal dari Swiss bernama Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 - 1913) dan seorang filsuf Amerika yang bernama Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 -1914). Awal mulanya konsep semiotik diperkenalkan oleh Ferdinand de Saussure melalui dikotomi sistem tanda: signified dan signifier atau signifie dan significant yang bersifat atomistis. Konsep ini melihat bahwa makna muncul ketika ada hubungan yang bersifat asosiasi atau in absentia antara ‘yang ditandai’ (signified) dan ‘yang menandai’ (signifier). Tanda adalah kesatuan dari suatu bentuk penanda (signifier) dengan sebuah ide atau petanda (signified). Dengan kata lain, penanda adalah “bunyi yang bermakna” atau “coretan yang bermakna”. Jadi, penanda adalah aspek material dari bahasa yaitu apa yang dikatakan atau didengar dan apa yang ditulis atau dibaca. Petanda adalah gambaran mental, pikiran, atau konsep.
Louis Hjelmslev, seorang penganut Saussurean berpandangan bahwa sebuah tanda tidak hanya mengandung hubungan internal antara aspek material (penanda) dan konsep mental (petanda), namun juga mengandung hubungan antara dirinya dan sebuah sistem yang lebih luas di luar dirinya. Bagi Hjelmslev, sebuah tanda lebih merupakan self-reflective dalam artian bahwa sebuah penanda dan sebuah petanda masing-masing harus secara berturut-turut menjadi kemampuan dari ekspresi dan persepsi. Louis Hjelmslev dikenal dengan teori metasemiotik (scientific semiotics). Sama halnya dengan Hjelmslev, Roland Barthes pun merupakan pengikut Saussurean yang berpandangan bahwa sebuah sistem tanda yang mencerminkan asumsi-asumsi dari suatu masyarakat tertentu dalam waktu tertentu. Semiotik, atau dalam istilah Barthes semiologi, pada dasarnya hendak mempelajari bagaimana kemanusiaan (humanity) memaknai hal-hal (things).
2.2 Macam-Macam Semiotik
Ada 9 macam semiotik yang kita ketahui :
1.      Semiotik Analitik
Semiotik analitik adalah semiotik yang menganalisis sistem tanda
2.      Semiotik Deskriptif
Semiotik deskriptif adalah semiotk yang memeperhatikan sistem tanda yang adapat kita alami sekarang, meskipun ada tanda yang sejak dahulu tetap seperti yang disaksiskan sekarang.
3.      Semiotik Faunal (Zoo semiotic)
Semiotik Faunal adalah semiotik yang khusus memperhatikan sistem tanda yang dihasilkan oleh hewan
4.      Semiotik Kultural
Semiotik kultural adalah semiotik yang khusus menelaah sistem tanda yang berlaku dalam kebudayaan masyarakat tertentu.
5.      Semiotik Naratif
Semiotik Naratif adalah semiotik yang menelaah sistem tanda dalam narasi yang berwujud mitos dan cerita lisan (Folkkore)


6.      Semiotik Natural
Semiotik natural adalah semiotik yang khusus menelaah sistem tanda yang dihasilkan oleh alam.
7.      Semiotik Normatif
Semiotik normatif adalah semiotik yang khusus menelaah sistem tanda yang di buat oleh manusia yang berwujud norma-norma, misalnya rambu-rambu lalu lintas.
8.      Semiotik Sosial
Semiotik sosial adalah semiotik yang khusus menelaah sistem tanda yang dihasilkan oleh manusia yang berupa lambang.
9.      Semiotik Struktural
Semiotik struktural adalah semiotik yang khusus menelaah sistem tanda yag dimanifestasikan melalui struktur bahasa.

2.3 Definisi Budaya
Budaya adalah suatu cara hidup yang berkembang dan dimiliki bersama oleh sebuah kelompok orang dan diwariskan dari generasi ke generasi. Budaya terbentuk dari banyak unsur yang rumit, termasuk sistem agama dan politik, adat istiadat, bahasa, perkakas, pakaian, bangunan, dan karya seni. Bahasa, sebagaimana juga budaya, merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari diri manusia sehingga banyak orang cenderung menganggapnya diwariskan secara genetis. Ketika seseorang berusaha berkomunikasi dengan orang-orang yang berbada budaya dan menyesuiakan perbedaan-perbedaannya, membuktikan bahwa budaya itu dipelajari.
Budaya adalah suatu pola hidup menyeluruh. budaya bersifat kompleks, abstrak, dan luas. Banyak aspek budaya turut menentukan perilaku komunikatif. Unsur-unsur sosio-budaya ini tersebar dan meliputi banyak kegiatan sosial manusia.
Beberapa alasan mengapa orang mengalami kesulitan ketika berkomunikasi dengan orang dari budaya lain terlihat dalam definisi budaya: Budaya adalah suatu perangkat rumit nilai-nilai yang dipolarisasikan oleh suatu citra yang mengandung pandangan atas keistimewaannya sendiri."Citra yang memaksa" itu mengambil bentuk-bentuk berbeda dalam berbagai budaya seperti "individualisme kasar" di Amerika, "keselarasan individu dengan alam" d Jepang dan "kepatuhan kolektif" di Cina. Citra budaya yang brsifat memaksa tersebut membekali anggota-anggotanya dengan pedoman mengenai perilaku yang layak dan menetapkan dunia makna dan nilai logis yang dapat dipinjam anggota-anggotanya yang paling bersahaja untuk memperoleh rasa bermartabat dan pertalian dengan hidup mereka.
Dengan demikian, budayalah yang menyediakan suatu kerangka yang koheren untuk mengorganisasikan aktivitas seseorang dan memungkinkannya meramalkan perilaku orang lain.

2.4 Pengertian Kebudayaan
Kebudayaan sangat erat hubungannya dengan masyarakat. Melville J. Herskovits dan Bronislaw Malinowski mengemukakan bahwa segala sesuatu yang terdapat dalam masyarakat ditentukan oleh kebudayaan yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat itu sendiri. Istilah untuk pendapat itu adalah Cultural-Determinism.
Herskovits memandang kebudayaan sebagai sesuatu yang turun temurun dari satu generasi ke generasi yang lain, yang kemudian disebut sebagai superorganic. Menurut Andreas Eppink, kebudayaan mengandung keseluruhan pengertian nilai sosial,norma sosial, ilmu pengetahuan serta keseluruhan struktur-struktur sosial, religius, dan lain-lain, tambahan lagi segala pernyataan intelektual dan artistik yang menjadi ciri khas suatu masyarakat.
Menurut Edward Burnett Tylor, kebudayaan merupakan keseluruhan yang kompleks, yang di dalamnya terkandung pengetahuan, kepercayaan, kesenian, moral, hukum, adat istiadat, dan kemampuan-kemampuan lain yang didapat seseorang sebagai anggota masyarakat. Dan menurut Selo Soemardjan dan Soelaiman Soemardi, kebudayaan adalah sarana hasil karya, rasa, dan cipta masyarakat.
Dari berbagai definisi tersebut, dapat diperoleh pengertian mengenai kebudayaan adalah sesuatu yang akan mempengaruhi tingkat pengetahuan dan meliputi sistem ide atau gagasan yang terdapat dalam pikiran manusia, sehingga dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, kebudayaan itu bersifat abstrak. Sedangkan perwujudan kebudayaan adalah benda-benda yang diciptakan oleh manusia sebagai makhluk yang berbudaya, berupa perilaku dan benda-benda yang bersifat nyata, misalnya pola-pola perilaku, bahasa, peralatan hidup, organisasi sosial, religi, seni, dan lain-lain, yang kesemuanya ditujukan untuk membantu manusia dalam melangsungkan kehidupan bermasyarakat.
2.5 Unsur-Unsur Kebudayaan
Ada beberapa pendapat ahli yang mengemukakan mengenai komponen atau unsur kebudayaan, antara lain sebagai berikut:
1.    Melville J. Herskovits menyebutkan kebudayaan memiliki 4 unsur pokok, yaitu:
·      alat-alat teknologi
·      sistem ekonomi
·      keluarga
·      kekuasaan politik
2.    Bronislaw Malinowski mengatakan ada 4 unsur pokok yang meliputi:
·      sistem norma sosial yang memungkinkan kerja sama antara para anggota masyarakat untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan alam sekelilingnya
·      organisasi ekonomi
·      alat-alat dan lembaga-lembaga atau petugas-petugas untuk pendidikan (keluarga adalah lembaga pendidikan utama)
·      organisasi kekuatan (politik) 

Types of Poetry

ABC poem
Definition of ABC poem
An ABC poem has a series of lines that create a mood, picture, or feeling. Lines are made up of words and phrases. The first word of line 1 begins with an A, the first word of line 2 begins with a B etc.
Example of ABC poem - author unknown
A lthough things are not perfect
B ecause of trial or pain
C ontinue in thanksgiving
D o not begin to blame
E ven when the times are hard
F ierce winds are bound to blow
Analogy Poetry Type
Definition of Analogy Poetry Type
An Analogy is a likeness or similarity between things (a subject and an analog) that are otherwise unlike. Analogy is the comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship.
Example of Analogy Poetry Type
Nothing Gold Can Stay by Robert Frost
Nature's first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf's a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf.
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day.
Nothing gold can stay.
By use of analogy the third term in the poem takes on the character of the first two thus
gold is green, flower is leaf and Eden is grief.




Ballad Poems
Definition of Ballad Poems
Ballad Poems are a poem that tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend and often has a repeated refrain. A ballad is often about love and often sung. A ballad is a story in poetic form. A collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, were collected by Francis James Child in the late 19th century - an example is shown below.
Example of Ballad Poems - Excerpt
The Mermaid by Unknown author
Oh the ocean waves may roll,
And the stormy winds may blow,
While we poor sailors go skipping aloft
And the land lubbers lay down below, below, below
And the land lubbers lay down below.
Ballade Poetry Types
Definition of Ballade Poetry Types
Ballade Poetry Types are a French verse form, usually with three stanzas of seven, eight, or ten lines and a shorter final stanza of four or five lines. All stanzas end with the same one-line refrain. One of the most famous ballades is "Ballade des pendus" ("Ballade of the hanged men") by Francois Villon (1431 - c. 1463)
Example of Ballade Poetry Types - Excerpt
"Ballade des pendus" ("Ballade of the hanged men") by Francois Villon
Freres humains qui après nous vivez,
N'ayez les cuers contre nous endurcis,
Car, se pitié de nous povres avez,
Dieu en aura plus tost de vous mercis.

Cacophony
Definition of Cacophony
Cacophony is a technique which was used by the famous poet and author Lewis Carroll. Lewis Carroll makes use of cacophony in the poem 'Jabberwocky' by using an unpleasant spoken sound created by clashing consonants. The word cacophony originates from the Greek word meaning "bad

sound". The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
Example of Cacophony - Excerpt
Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
Classicism Types
Definition of Classicism Types of Poetry
Classicism Types of poetry contain the principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature. Classicism concerns itself with form and discipline as opposed to emotional impact as in Romanticism. Examples of classicism in poetry can be found in the works of John Dryden and Alexander Pope, which are characterized by their formality, simplicity, and emotional restraint.
Example of Classicism Types - Excerpt
The poem is an example of a genre represented in Latin by Ovid's Heroides.
Eloisa to Abelard by Alexander Pope
In these deep solitudes and awful cells,
Where heav'nly-pensive contemplation dwells,
And ever-musing melancholy reigns;
What means this tumult in a vestal's veins?
Why rove my thoughts beyond this last retreat?
Why feels my heart its long-forgotten heat?
Conceit Poetry Type
Definition of Conceit Poetry Type
Conceit Poetry Type is where an image or metaphor likens one thing to something else that is seemingly very different. Poets often use a far-fetched simile or metaphor in this style. An example of a conceit can be found in Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?".
Example of Conceit Poetry Type - Excerpt
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? By William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Couplet Poetry Type
Definition of Couplet Poetry Type and Term
A Couplets is a Stanza of only two lines which usually rhyme. Shakespearean (also called Elizabethan and English) sonnets usually end in a couplet and are a pair of lines that are the same length and usually rhyme and form a complete thought. William Shakespeare makes use of couplets in more complex rhyme schemes
Example of Couplet Poetry Type - Excerpt
Sonnet 116 Let me not to the marriage of true minds by William Shakespeare
...Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never write, nor no man ever loved.
Dactyl Poetry Type
Definition of Dactyl Poetry Type
The Dactyl Poetry Term is a metrical foot of three syllables, one long (or stressed) followed by two short (or unstressed), as in 'happily'. The dactyl is the reverse of the Anapaest. An example of the dactyl from "The Charge of the Light Brigade" by Alfred Lord Tennyson is: Half a League, Half a League, Half a League, onward
Example of Dactyl Poetry Type
The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
"Forward, the Light Brigade!
"Charge for the guns!" he said:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.


Blank Verse
Definition of Blank Verse
Blank Verse is Poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank verse is often unobtrusive and the iambic pentameter form often resembles the rhythms of ordinary speech. William Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in blank verse.
Example of Blank Verse
Excerpt from Macbeth by William Shakespeare
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

Definition of Poetry According to some Experts

1.       John Keats
Poetry is an attempt to read the beautiful or subline without the gurdon of imagining the logical or narrative thought process. He does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration.
2.       William Wordswoth
Poetry is the spontaneous overflow the powerfull feelings; it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility; the emotion is contemplated till, by a species of reaction, the tranquility gradually disappears, and an emotion, kindred to that which was the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself actually exist in the mind.
3.       Paul Valery 
Poetry is an art based on language, but poetry has more general meaning that is difficult to define because it is less determine; poetry also expresses a certain state of mind.
4.       Aristoteles
The existing fragments of Aristoteles’ poet is describe three genres of poetry are the epic, the comic, the tragic and develop rules to distinguish the highest quality poetry is each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
5.       Carol an duffy
A poem is the attire of feeling: the literary from where words seem tailor made from memory or desire
6.       Lawrence Ferlinghetti, san fransisco chronicle.
Poetry is a sofa full of blind singer who have put aside their cares. Poetry is the sound of summer in the rain of people laughing behind close shutters down a narrow street.
7.       Robert pinsky
Poetry … is an ancient art or technology; older than computer, older than print, older than writing indeed, though some may find this surprising much older than prose. I presume that the technology of poetry, using the human body as its medium, evolved for specific uses; to hold thing in memory, both within and beyond the individual life span; to achieve intensity and sensuous appeal; to express feelings and ideas rapidly and memorably; to share those feelings and ideas with companions, and also with the dead and with those to come after us.
8.       Anne Rouse
Poetry is about the intensity at the centre of the life, and about intricacy of expression without any appreciation of those, people are condemned to simplistic emotion and crude expression.
9.       Frieda Hughes
Poetry is the way of communicating a vast array of thoughts and feeling by concentrating them into minimal, or even single points which describe a whole.
10.   Matthew Hollis, poetry society bulletin, spring 2004
Poetry is… a kind of leaving of notes for another to find the willingness to have them fall into the wrong hands.
11.   Hugh Maxton
Poetry is a fire, well blanked-down that it may warm survivor in the even colder night to come.


12.   Charles Baudelaire, by Gustave Courbet
Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. It maybe indistinguishable from the micro-story. Most critics argue that it qualifies as poetry because of its conciseness, use of metaphor and special attention to language.
13.   William Shakespeare
The most popular kind of the poetry is the lyric poetry because it shows bewildering variety of forms, as it deeds intricately with the author’s own emotions and views.
14.   Dylan Thomas
Poetry is what makes someone laugh or cry or yawn, what makes someone toenails twinkle, what makes someone want to do this or that or nothing.
15.   Dave Smith, Local Assays 1985
Poetry is a dialect of the language we speak, possessed of metaphorical density, coded with the resonant meaning, engaging us with narrative’s pleasure, enhancing and sustaining our pleasure with enlarged awareness.
16.   Harold Bloom
Poetry essentially is figurative language, concentrated so that its form of both expressive and evocative.
17.   Herman de Coninck
Poetry is like fingerprints/ on a window, behind which a child who can’t sleep/stands waiting for down.
18.   Shelly, Percy Bysshe
Poetry is a record of the best and the happiest moments of the happy and the best minds.
19.   Umberto Eco
Poetry is not a matter of feelings, it is a matter of language. It is language which creates feelings.
20.   Mark Doty
Poetry is an investigation, not an expression of what you know.
 

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