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Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Word Formation Process - Compounding Process (A full Report)


PREFACE

Alhamdulillahi rabbil alamin, it is the best expression which I like to address to the Almighty God, Allah SWT in this opportunity. I realize that I can’t do anything without the blessing and the mercies from Allah SWT. This Paper is written as a partial of fulfillment of the requirement for Morphology Assignment to follow the final examination in the 4th semester.
In composing this paper, I face a lot of troubles but with the motivation, the suggestion, the encouragement, the support and the guidance from many people especially my friend and my lecture, eventually I am able to overcome the problems and finish this paper. I realize that this paper is still far from perfect. Therefore, the constructive and the criticism are awfully appreciated to develop this paper in order to it becomes more valuable. I expected that this paper can be useful for the people who want to learn about Morphology, especially the people who want to know about the compounding word process.
Gorontalo, June 2009

Hasir Y. Uti




CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Basic Consideration
Morphology is a branch of linguistics field. As a mater of fact, there are several linguistics fields that have to learn, for instance phonetics and phonology, syntax, semantic, lexis and pragmatic. It all we need to learn in order to make our knowledge about English language wider. We have to know all about that and it should be learned in its steps. The first we should learn about phonetics and phonology then move to morphology and so on. If we just learn not in its order, maybe you will be confused. It is because each part has its relation with the other parts. In addition, we have to understand each part before we move to the next part. Beside the example above, there are some branches of linguistic that are merged with the other field, such as sociolinguistics, corpus linguistics, stylistics and others. Actually, I don’t want to talk about the whole linguistic fields, but I just want to talk about one of them that I mentioned above. In this paper, I will talk about Morphology and the word formation process especially in Compounding process.
Talking about morphology, it means that we talks about word or morphemes and its formation. As a system of language, words or morphemes have significant role. The changing of the word form can change the meaning and the group types of the word, for example, the word play-player and tall-taller. The first word play-player and the second word tall-taller have a different term. The word play becomes player by adding a suffix (-er) add the last letter and it changes the meaning and its group from verb to noun. While the second word tall-taller has the same process with the first one but it has the different term that it doesn’t change the group of the word. The word changes from tall to taller, but it is still an adjective. It just changes the meaning of the word. Overall, the little changes in a word can change the meaning of the word itself. In creating a new word, we couldn’t just add a morpheme in a word wherever we like. But it has the roles and processes.
There are many processes of creating a new word. The processes are rarely observed by people. They just know about the usage of the word in a language and it is acceptable in public relation. They don’t care whether they know about the process creation or not. Actually, the word formation process is indentified in some types, for example, loan word/borrowings, blending, clipping, acronyms, affixations, back-formations, conversions, compounding and etc. They are some examples of word formation words and we all have to know about it. It is important for us to make our knowledge about the word processing process. Therefore, In this paper, I will just talk about compounding process which is a part of them that we need. Compounding is the word formation process that creating a new word by combining words in one and has a different meaning. It is formed by adding a different word in another and it becomes have 2 roots and one meaning. Compounding word can be found in our daily life. There are some terminologies that we found, such as, software, inbox, wiseguy, coldblood, girlfriend, toothbrush, wallpaper and etc. Those are some examples of compounding words and maybe one of them you didn’t know the meaning is. It is important for us to know about the compounding process. We have to know that to enlarge our knowledge about word creating process in order to make us understand the part of language.
The compounding process is used in all languages. You can easy to discern the usage of the compound words in short stories, novels, articles, newspapers, books, and etc. Some word formations are also used in there but, in this case I prefer to search the using of compounding words.
1.2 Problem Statements1. How to find compound words and how to classify it?
2. How to distinguish compounding process and any other formation process?

1.3 Objectives

1. To improve the knowledge about the word formation, especially about compounding. 
2. To understand the term and condition in combining the words.1.4 Scope and delimitation
In this paper I will use a short story by Stephen Crane with title ‘the dark-brown dog’. I will search the compounding word in his story and its form and class.
1.5 Significant of Research
This research is surely for the student in a University. This is should be learned by the student in English Department in order to understand the process of word creation. This can help them to correct any errors in their writing and they will know how the word formulated. They also will be able to classify the word form and its meaning and they will not make any errors in their writing and in giving the meaning to the words.
1.6 Reason for choosing the topic
Everyone has the interests in one object of research. It also occurred on me. I am as a writer has the interests in this topic because I think this topic is the interesting. The compounding words are often used in a books, novels, magazine and etc that we read in our daily life. Sometimes, I found the compounding word that I don’t know what it means in my language. I just guess the meaning of the word based on it roots. As a result, I was wrong and the meaning was far from the roots means. Maybe some people have the same experience with mine and maybe they don’t know about it. That is my reason to choose this topic. By knowing the compounding word process, we will be able to correct that error if it happens to us.
1.7 Methodology
The method that will be used in this research is Descriptive Method. This method will be used to explain how to combine the word to be overlapped in compounding process. The combining is pretty easy because we don’t need to reduce or shortening the word. Therefore, It needs more explanation about how to combine it.
1.8 Technique of collecting the data
The instrument that I used in this paper is collecting the data from the internet. Actually, I didn’t have any books that telling about the word formation process, so I decided to find it on the internet. I think internet is the good instrument to collect the data because we can find many referential resources that tells about the word formation. I have found many sites that contain about morphology and the word formation process. I took some of them and make summarize of its explanation. To be certain, I used internet for finding my paper.
1.9 Technique of analyzing data
The technique which is used in this analyzing is qualitative. This technique is used because this technique is really appropriate with the study of word formation process. I take the source from the internet and choose which one is easier to understand by the people. I also added the example in it.
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL BASES
Word formation process is included in morphology substance. We all know that morphology is the study about the word in a language. Actually, the term of word formation process doesn’t have a clear cut but it is already accepted in its usage. Word formation process is sometimes referred to all process connected to the changing of the word form. For example, we can find it in affixation which is the matter of morphology. In a wider situation, word formation is also the process of creating a new lexis unit.
Word formation can be found in all language in the world, including English language. Word formation is addressed to the process of creating a new word in a language. This doesn’t mean that the new word is cognitively “formed” every time the native speaker uses it. There are also some word formations that may not be in use any longer. For example, the –ly in friendly or ghostly is not anymore used to create the new adjective. But noticed the way in which word was formed anew at one point in the past helps us to see the relationship with the other words. For example, in the word ghostly we could find that that word was originally derives from the stem ghost with ending –ly. Other means are still used frequently in English, such as the ending –ness.
The common way in forming the words is affixation. Affixation means that a bound morpheme is merged to a free morpheme, or stem. There are three places that the bound morpheme can be put. They are in before, after and in the middle of the stem. The affixes that put before the stem are called prefixes, for example the word unlock. The affixes that put after the stem are called suffix, for example, the word lockable. The ones that put in the middle of the stem are labeled infix. This affix is rare in English word, but in Indonesian word it is occurred, for example the word gerigi. The word derives from gigi and then the morpheme –ri- put in the middle of that word. Instead of talking about the affixation, we had better talk about the kinds of word formation process.
There are some ways that is used to create a new word in a language. It is identified into some kinds, they are: Coinage, Acronym, Blending, Clipping, Borrowing, Compounding, Back formation, Conversion, and Suppletion. The kind of word formation processes is important in the English languages, but it is rarely the case that only one process occurs in the word. In this paper I will talk about the word formation process especially in compounding process.
What is compounding?
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_compound). Compounding is a word that consists either of two or more elements that are independent words, such as loudspeaker, baby-sit, or high school or specially modified combining forms of words, such as Greek philosophia, from philo- ‘loving,” and Sophia, “wisdom” (http://www.dictionary.com).
Compounding or word compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting together old words. It means the new word is formed by two or more words that are called a root. In the other side, compound, compounding or word-compounding occurs when a person attaches two or more words together to become one word that has a new meaning. The meanings of the words interrelate in such a way that a new meaning comes out which is very different from the meanings of the words in isolation, for example, the word housewife which its means as the wife which is her work in a house. It doesn’t the have a same meaning when we isolate that word.
The compounding formation in a language can be the noun phrases that include a noun modified by adjective or attributive nouns. Due to the English tendency towards conversion, the two classes are not always easily distinguished. Most of English compound that consist of more than one word can be constructed recursively by combining two words at a time.
The compounding formation is really easy to discover. As you know, we can know that the word is compounding by isolate it to their roots. By that we can what are the roots of the word and what the meaning when it is combined. The meaning is sometimes far from the roots meaning, so we couldn’t just guess the meaning of the word without take a check if it has another meaning than its roots.
Forms of compounding word
There are three forms of compound words:

• The solid or closed form in which two usually moderately short words appear together as one. Solid compounds most likely consist of short (monosyllabic) units that often have been established in the language for a long time. Examples are housewife, lawsuit, wallpaper, etc.
• The hyphenated form in which two or more words are connected by a hyphen. Compounds that contain affixes, such as house-build(er) and single-mind(ed)(ness), as well as adjective-adjective compounds and verb-verb compounds, such as blue-green and freeze-dry, are often hyphenated. Compounds that contain particles, such as mother-of-pearl and salt-and-pepper, are also often hyphenated.
• The open or spaced form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words, such as distance learning, player piano, lawn tennis, etc. Sources: http://www.experiencefestival.com/english_compound
Classification of compound word

All the compounding words are included in the form above. Besides the form of compounding words, there are 2 classifications of the compound words. The classifications are:
1. Semantic Classifications
A common semantic classification yields 4 types:

1. An endocentric compound consists of a head, i.e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, and modifiers, which restrict this meaning. For example, the English compound doghouse, where house is the head and dog is the modifier, is understood as a house intended for a dog.
2. Exocentric compounds (called a bahuvrihi compound in the Sanskrit tradition) do not have a head, and their meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent parts. For example, the English compound white-collar is neither a kind of collar nor a white thing.
3. Copulative compounds are compounds which have two semantic heads.
4. Appositional compounds refer to lexemes that have two (contrary) attributes which classify the compound.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_compound
2. Formal Classifications
English, words, particularly adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways.
1. Noun + Noun
The most common type of word formation is the combination of two (or more) nouns in order to form a resulting noun:
Noun + Noun = Noun Examples: landmine, wallpaper, toothbrush
The first of the two compounds may be descriptive or both compounds may create a whole new meaning altogether. It is also possible to form words whose components are equally important to or descriptive of its meaning, for example, a washer-dryer refers to an object combining two functions.
2. Verb + Noun
Here verbs describe what is done with an object or what a subject "does", in short, a new noun is formed, usually referring to something concrete, and the verb defines the action related to it:
Verb + Noun = Noun: draw + bridge = drawbridge.
A drawbridge is a bridge that can be inclined in order to allow ships to pass, or "drawn". Here, the noun is the direct object.
3. Noun + Adjective
Nouns and adjectives can also be compounded in the opposite order:
Noun + Adjective = Adjective
Camera + shy = camera-shy (Shy in respect of appearing or speaking before cameras).
In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective. Another possibility is that the noun supports the adjective, i.e. as an intensifier: Dirt-cheap = cheap as dirt; paper-thin = thin as paper Those rules do also apply to the linking of nouns and participial adjectives: English-speaking; soul-destroying; frost-bitten More common and shorter compounds appear as one word whereas those longer and less common are linked by a hyphen.
4. Adjectives + Noun

Another major type of word formation is the compounding of Adjectives and nouns:
Adjective + Noun = Noun: Brown + bear = brownbear
In this case, the adjective defines or describes the character of the noun ( a brownbear is a bear that is brown). It is also possible, however, to link the two segments and end up with a totally new word, for example, yellowpress refers to newspapers specializing in sensational news items. If the meaning of the compound does not immediately register through analysis of the segments, the latter is the case. Then, only a look in the dictionary will help.
Other Compounds There are various other types of compounds. A selection of which is shown below.Adjective + Adjective
Bitter-sweet, deaf-mute, aural-oral, Anglo-Saxon

Adjective + Participle

Far-reaching, far fetched, narrow-minded, single-minded, high-climbing, low-yielding, red-painted, bare-handed
Note: It is as well possible to combine adjectives with participles not originating from verbs.
Adjective + Verb
To blackmail, to dry-clean, to blackpaint, to whitewash
Noun + Verb

To proofread, to babysit, to brainstorm, to sightsee, to tape-record


Preposition + V/adv/N Understand
underwater, underwear, undertaker, underweight and etc.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH AND DISCCUSSION


3.1 Research
Compounding is commonly used in a language, not only in English language, but also it occurred in the other languages of the world. We can see it through magazine, article, internet, and etc. To find the compound word and to classify which the word belongs to, we have to know all about the theory about the compounding itself.
After know all about the compounding process, we have to practice what we get about the compounding. For example you read the book and find the word that you think included in compound word. In here I took the short story as my object of research. I want to know whether the compound words are often used or not and how the people possible put the meaning of the word compound. I took Stephen Crane’s story as the story to find the word compound. It is about 37 paragraphs in this short story. The title of the story is “A dark brown dog”.
Stephen Crane A Dark-Brown Dog A Child was standing on a street-corner. He leaned with one shoulder against a high board-fence and swayed the other to and fro, the while kicking carelessly at the gravel. (Paragraph 1) Street-corner and board-fence (nouns) This is a hyphenated form of compounding process. You can easily see it by the hyphen that was written there. These words are constructed by both nouns (noun + noun). Sunshine beat upon the cobbles, and a lazy summer wind raised yellow dust which trailed in clouds down the avenue. Clattering trucks moved with indistinctness through it. The child stood dreamily gazing. (Paragraph 2) Sunshine (noun) This word is the closed form. You can see that this word has 2 roots that each of them has its mean. This word consists of a noun and a verb. They are ‘sun’ and ‘shine’. If we just separate this word into “sun shine” it will be have the different meaning. The word “shine” will become a verb. Summer wind (noun) This is an open or spaced form. ‘Summer wind’ is constructed by N + N. After a time, a little dark-brown dog came trotting with an intent air down the sidewalk. A short rope was dragging from his neck. Occasionally he trod upon the end of it and stumbled. (Paragraph 3) Dark-brown (adjective) You must have known that this is the compounding by looking the hyphen and its roots. It consists of adjective + adjective. Intent air and sidewalk (noun) Intent air is a spaced form while sidewalk is closed form. Intent air was constructed by a noun + noun and sidewalk was constructed by noun + verb. They are above is just the sample of the story. There are more paragraphs that contain the compound words in it. I didn’t write all the paragraphs because I think it is too many to write in. Actually, I have found some compounding words in the short story. The following lists are the compounding word that I found in the story: 1. Grave crime (N + N= N)
2. Footpad (N + N= N)

3. Door-step (N + V= N)

4. Stairways (N + N= N)
5. Panic-stricken (N + Participle = Adj.)

6. Door home (N + N = N)
7. Way heeded (N + N = N)
8. Savage temper (N + N = N)

9. Household (N + V = N)
10. Large-folk (Adj. + N = N)

11. Outstretched (Adj. + Participle= adj.)

12. Safeguard (adj. + N = N)

13. Underfeeding (Prep + V = N)

14. Dog-soul (N + N = N)

15. Joyous gambol (adj. + V= N)

16. Coffee-pot (N + N = N)

17. Flower-pot (N + N = N)

18. Clothes-pins ( N + N = N)

19. Alleyway ( N + N = N)

20. Downstairs (adj. + N = Adv.)

21. Backward (adj. + N = N)


I think you all know the classification of the lists above. So, I think I don’t need to classify it one by one. It is easy to classify which form are the words included. You just see if it is closed, hyphened or separated/spaced.


3.2 Discussion

Compounding process can change the word class and in language. You can see above that sometimes the word is changed its class. When the word combined with the other one, it changes the meaning of the words, the class of the words, and the word stress. It means that we have to be careful and aware about the compound word itself. We couldn’t just assume its class, meaning (sometimes could), and the word stress.
The meaning and the class of the compound word is easy enough to find. We can use our dictionary to find the word classes and the meaning. As I said before that, sometimes the meaning of the compound words are different from it roots. For example, when the people say word “Understand”, maybe you have known the meaning is. But lexically, if we isolate the word according to its roots, it will have a different meaning became under =below and stand = stay. Maybe for the people who don’t know the meaning, they will give the meaning lexically to be “stay below”, that what I thought. But, I am not sure that it was like that, because the word Understand is really familiar to our ears. About the class of the word, you can see it in dictionary if you don’t know which class the words are included.
The two parts above maybe is easy but about the word stress maybe is pretty difficult to know. We will need the native speaker to pronounce the compound words. We have to make the differences between the compounding and the other words, such as the compound word “Sunshine” with “sun shine”. According to psycholinguist Steven Pinker, the second one is accented more heavily. Sound patterns, such as stresses placed on particular syllables, may indicate whether the word group is a compound or whether it is an adjective-+-noun phrase. A compound usually has a falling intonation. For example, the compound word Blackboard is stressed "bláckboard" while the word phrases black board is stressed like “bláck bóárd" (Note that this rule does not apply in all contexts).
The compounding process is easy to distinguish with the other processes. This process isn’t the same with any other process, such as conversion, borrowing, clipping, acronym, prefixes and others. In this process we use the free morphemes at all. It doesn’t use bound morphemes like prefixes. Besides, this process doesn’t make a shortening and clipping the word, but it use the whole word to combine with the others. So, the word will be easy by seeing if the words have the roots which are the free morphemes or not. That is how we can distinguish the compound process with the others.
CHAPTER IV

CLOSING

4.1 Conclusion
From the discussion above, we know that the word formation process is really important for us to be known. We have to know all kinds of the word formation itself in order to make our knowledge about the word imported. You know that the compounding process is one of the processes in word formation. It means that we have to know about it and how the process of making compound word. In compounding, the word is made by using two free morpheme joined together without any changing. It has three ways to form the words; they are closed form, hyphened form, and spaces word. The classifications of the compound word are divided into semantic classification and formal classification. Each classification has its sub that we need for classifying the compound word.
In finding the meaning, the classes and the stress of the compound word we have to know all about the compounding process firstly. We need it for understanding the process of compound word. In finding the meaning of the compound word, we have to be careful to give the meaning in the word because sometimes the meaning of the compound words is far from its roots. We need to use the dictionary to help us to find the real meaning. Beside for finding the meaning of the compound word, we also need the word to classify which classes the words are in. if you know the classification, maybe you don’t need to use it. Separated from compound words stressing, we need the native speaker to pronounce the compound word. If we are wrong in stressing the compound word, we will have the different meaning except in writing form. It will be easy to find it if in writing. Finally, we know about the all the compound word generally.
4.2 Suggestion
As a writer, I hope this paper will be one of your references to learn about the word formation process in morphology. I suggest you to learn about the compounding word processing and others word processing. This is really important for all of you to know all about this, because this is the bases of the language. As you know, word second part of language after the letter in phonetic. In addition, the word is the base of the sentences construction also the paragraph also this paper. At least, all of you can read this paper to add your knowledge about the morphology even though I know this paper is still far from perfect. Finally, I wish this paper can be helpful for all of you. 
SOURCES

http://articles.directorym.net/Education-s100.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_compound


http://www.dictionary.com
http://www.experiencefestival.com/english_compound

http://www.experiencefestival.com/english_compound


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/morphology


http://www.paulnoll.com/Books/Clear-English/English-compound-1.html


http://www.americanliterature.com/Crane/Crane.html


http://www.hamline.edu/personal/aschramm/linguistics2001/5mrphana.html

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

What is a Global Warming?




The earth is heating up. The temperature is getting so hot in Earth surface and it made the ice in Arctic melting. The data shows that the temperature is increasing by 0.8 degrees Celsius each year and it continues at increasing rate [IPCC, 2007]. Do you know what causes it? Can you imagine what will happen if all ice in Arctic melted? And how many problems will be caused by it? I don’t know whether you know about it or not, but I think maybe you all have heard about the phrase “Global Warming” or maybe some are not. To make you know all about “Global Warming”, in this Essay I’ll tell you about it. I will tell you what the “Global Warming” and then what and who causes the Global Warming itself. I will also tell you about its effect to our life and when it was started. For the last, I will tell you how to stop Global Warming for saving our earth. Now, I will start with what the Global Warming is.

Global warming is the increasing of temperature of the earth’s atmosphere which is causing the big changes in global climate (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/global%20warming). Global warming is also known as the "Greenhouse effect". It is called like that because the process Global Warming is the same as the Greenhouse process. I think you all know how the Greenhouse looks like. When you get in the Greenhouse, You will feel warm rather than outside the Greenhouse. It is because the heat from the sun was trapped inside the Greenhouse. The glass panels of the Greenhouse let in light but keep heat from escaping. That’s why the Greenhouse is warm even in the cold day. That is also happening in Earth which “Atmosphere” has the function as the glass panels that keeping the Earth warm. The heat from the sun passed through the Atmosphere and then the Earth’s surface, land, water and biosphere absorb the sunlight’s energy. Once it is absorbed, the energy is sent back to the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back to the space, but much of it remains trapped in Earth’s Atmosphere by Greenhouse gasses. Actually, Greenhouse effect is really important for us because without Greenhouse effect, the earth wouldn’t warm enough for people to live. But if the Greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it will make the Earth warmer than usual. Although a little extra changing of Earth warming may cause many problems for entire life in Earth (http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html). I think you all want to know why we should know about the Global Warming and who causes it. Now, I’ll tell you who cause Global Warming and why it is happened or what the causes are.

There are many things that causing Global Warming. Of course “human” is the one who causes the Global Warming happened. The human do some actions that cause the Global Warming. For instance, the human cuts down the trees which collecting the Greenhouse gasses (CO2); they made air pollution and they used energy out of normally usage (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215471/global_warming.htm). You maybe don’t realize that you also cause Global Warming by sending Greenhouse gasses to atmosphere. You made a Greenhouse gasses whenever you watch T.V; use the air conditioner; turn on a light; use a hair dryer; ride in a car; play video game; listen to a stereo; wash or dry clothes; use a dish washer; microwave a meal and etc. You know, to perform these actions, you use electricity. In making the electricity, the factory uses the coil and oil and the burning process of them produces Greenhouse gasses (http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/change.html). If you perform all those actions too often, it means you produce Greenhouse gasses much more. As the result, you made the Global Warming worse. From here, I think that all what we do, can be the causes of Global Warming. After talking about causes of Global Warming, I will tell you what its effects and where the biggest impact of Global warming is.

Actually, all those actions above cause many effects in our life. The effects are both concern both for environment and human’s life. For instance, the ice in North’s pole is melting and it is causing the sea level increased. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice (http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-effects.html). Do you know what the impact if whole ice in there melted? Of course the land for human to live will be narrow while the human population increased for year to year. You can imagine if we don’t have land to live for, where will we live? The worse impact, maybe the whole earth will be covered by the water; that is what I think. Another example that is really close to us now is the changing of the climate or temperature. It becomes unstable and unpredictable. In Gorontalo for Example, I feel like the climate here has changed. I can tell that there is no more dry season and wet season in Gorontalo. I feel that everyday is so hot and also the rain falls not in its season. In other places such as in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia, the temperature has risen at twice the global average. It is the reports from multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment that compiled between 2000 and 2004 (http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html). Thomas Karl, director of NOAA said that the current pace of temperature rise is “consistent with a rate of 5.4 to 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit per century.” It means that the world has warmed by 5 to 9 Fahrenheit since the depths of the last century, 18,000 to 20,000 years ago (http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_evd.htm#graph). By that, we can know why the climate in every place changed. It of course because of the temperature changes in earth surface. Besides the changing of the climate, Global Warming can also be the threats to health. For instance, the tropical disease spread to larger regions and also the skin cancer patient increased. All above are just some examples of effects of Global Warming and maybe there are some others that I didn’t mention yet . Surely, Global Warming has a bad effect for human and environment. After know all the facts that I have mentioned above, maybe one of you want to know when actually Global Warming began. Next, I will tell you when it was started.

Many people ask “When did Global Warming start to begin?” Actually, Global Warming started long before Industrial Revolution. William Ruddiman, a climate scientist in the University of Virginia says “People may have begun altering the world’s climate as 8,000 years ago”. His analysis shows that between 8,000 and 150 years ago, humans created enough Greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere to account for global temperature increase of 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit. This increasing temperature had caused many problems over the past century. The data shows that levels of Greenhouse gasses began its rises along with human civilization. People started cutting trees from the forest for housing and agriculture fields about 8,000 years ago in Europe and Asia. These actions make the Carbon Dioxide (Greenhouse gasses) in earth couldn’t be reprocessed to be Oxygen by the trees and it causes earth heating up (http://www.ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=4189). By the way, instead of asking “when the global warming started”, we as a human that live in earth should think how to stop the Global Warming before it becomes the causes of ending up the world. At least, you can help to minimize the Greenhouse gasses. I have some ideas that we can use to decrease Greenhouse gasses which causes the Global Warming. I will tell it for the next.

There are many things that we can do to decrease Global Warming. For me, I will reduce the using of paper. If we waste the paper for the unnecessary things, it is same that we cut the trees. Besides reducing of paper uses, I will minimize to use electricity and using the car or motorcycle. Thereby, we reduce of creating Greenhouse gasses to trap in atmosphere. After do all that actions, I will ask people to plant the trees in their garden. So, it can be the tool to reprocess Greenhouse gasses (CO2) to be Oxygen. If I become a president, I would do reforestation in the forest that has been cleared its trees. I will tell to people the climate has changed is caused by the Global Warming. I will also tell them the other effects of Global Warming, such as the melting of ice in Arctic and its threats to human and environment. As the result, they will know about the Global Warming and its effect and they will help to decrease producing Greenhouse gasses. Those are maybe just some actions that we can do to help the world. You should start to stop from now, or the world will be ended up if you don’t.

Global Warming is the increase of temperature in earth surface. It is happened because human doesn’t care about the environment and doesn’t know about the Global Warming. Human does deforestation and produces Greenhouse gasses without thinking of the effect later. Greenhouses gasses trapped in atmosphere and it caused the Earth heating up. As the result, the Ice in North’s Pole (Arctic) is melting and causes the sea level up. Besides, it also changed the climate and weather in some places. The Global Warming had been happening since 8,000 years ago when the people started to cut the trees in the forest. It means, the Global Warming is not just happening but, it has been happening long time ago. For now, all we can do is to stop the Global Warming itself. We have to tell people about the Global Warming and suggest them to reduce the Greenhouse gasses producing which causes Global Warming. That is the way to help earth from ending up. 

Sources

: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/global%20warming
: http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html
: http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215471/global_warming.htm
: http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/change.html
: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-effects.html
: http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_evd.htm#graph
: http://www.ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=4189

Friday, May 1, 2009

My favorite music and band

Many people in the world like music. They have their own likes of music, such as rock music, hip-hop, R n’ B, pop, rap and many others. I also really like the music, but I like better listening to the rock music. You know, for me rock music can loose my stress and make my feeling better when I listen this music. Some people, for instance my friends, they told me it’s really crazy. For them, rock music just made their stress bigger when they were listening to this music. I wanted to laugh out loud when told me that, but I didn’t. I only told them “we are different, so it is possible if you had the different thoughts of rock music”. That’s what I could tell them at the time. Necessarily, I still love rock music and don’t care what they said about this rock music. In this writing, I will tell you about a rock band which can be your reference for listening rock music. The band named “Linkin Park”. You know, that band is really famous in rock music fans society. They are also my favorite band. I take this band to be one of your references, because they are really easy to be discovered and their music is not boring. You should easy to find them if you are interested in this band. I am sure that you will like them; at least I am hoping it will be. Ok, I will talk about the band itself.

Linkin Park is the rock band comes from Agoura hills, California, USA. They were formed in 1996 which headed by mike shinoda. Name “Linkin Park” derives from “Lincoln Park” which is the place where they always gather. Actually, this band just had 5 personnel inside when it formed for the first time. Mike shinoda is the vocalist at the time. Then, mike hired one person to be a second vocalist named Chester bennington. So, they had 6 personnel inside after all. They are Mike as vocalist, Chester as second vocalist, John Hans as turntables player, Brad Dalson as guitarist, Dave Farrell as Bassist, and Rob Bourdon as drummer. From all the personnel of linkin park, I like Chester Bennington as the vocalist than Mike Shinoda. Chester’s vocal is really cool. He can cry harder than mike. Mike is good only for being a rapper. One thing than made Chester different with any other bands’ vocalist is, when Chester cried hard in the song, he could easily turn his voice in the smooth voice if the next lyrics should take a smooth vocal. His voice is even good in singing the smooth lyrics in their songs. That is something that any other vocalists couldn’t do. You can see that if you hear his voice. Well, back to the band, after that reforming by adding Chester in the band, they started make the songs and albums.

Linkin Park has had 4 albums until now. Linkin Park released their first album in 2000 with title “Hybrid Theory”. Their songs were becoming famous all over the world. I was eleven when the first time I heard their songs. That was also the first time I fall in love with rock music. I didn’t know why, but first time I heard their music it was so amazing. At the time, I didn’t know what the meaning of the songs they sang and I didn’t even know the band’s name. I just like their music and also the voice of the vocalist. Their next album was released in 2001 with title “Reanimation”. When I heard the songs of this album, I directly guessed that these songs belonged to them. This time I had already known their name, I mean their band’s name. I was planning to buy their CD at the time, but I didn’t have much money for buying their CD. You know what I did to get the CD? I lied to my Mom by telling her that I need money for my subjects. That’s a big sin, huh? I hope God forgives me. “Meteora” is their third album. It is released in 2002. This album was really booming in that year. Their CD sold until 800.000 copies for the first week. It’s really big amount. I bought the CD but I didn’t make the same thing by telling lies to my Mom for getting the money. I bought the CD by my own using money which I got from my scholarships. This time I didn’t make a sin. This success of their third album made them take a tour around the US. After released their third album, they stopped making songs. They had a side projects. They made a featuring project with Jay-Z. At this side project, Mike Shinoda went out from Linkin Park and reformed a new band named “Fort Minor”. After they take a side projects, Linkin Park started make songs. They released a new album with title “Minutes to Midnight” in 2006. They are left 5 personnel inside after Mike Shinoda had got out from the band. In this album, their songs and music are different with their song which used to be. I thought it because Mike’s voice is not longer presented. You know, Mike is a rapper. So, there is no more Rap music touching in their rock music. Even their songs and music are now different, but I still love them. They are still my favorite band till now. So far, after I heard their all their songs, I had some songs that I like the most. You know every people had their own feeling to the songs itself. It can be because the songs described their love story or their life. Well, that’s depends.

I love almost all the songs of Linkin Park. Mostly, Linkin Park songs are telling about life. They seldom made a love song like the other bands. In their first album, my favorite song is “Runaway”. Besides I loved the arrangement of the music, this song is also telling about someone who wanted to runaway from what he had done. Maybe this song describes what I ever did in past and I still do that until now. You don’t have to know what I did, do you? It’s my privacy. In their second album, I love song with title “Breaking the habit”. I think this is a really cool song. Music arrangement of this song is wonderful. You know, I still love this song till now. I never felt bored with this song even though Linkin Park has had a new album. About the song, it tells about someone who wanted to break the habit which is been years they hold. I love this song’s lyric because it happened to me. I want to break the habit that I had been hold for years. Well, I don’t want to be bounded by the habit itself. I want to do whatever I like. In reanimation album, there aren’t any of their songs that I like. This album is just about recycled of Hybrid Theory album, so it is just the same songs. In their last album “Minutes to Midnight”, I got 2 songs that I loved the most. They are with title “what I have done” and “Leave out All the Rest”. “What I have done” describes about the war. That is what I watched from their video clip. Actually, I don’t know what this song tells about. I just like the music arrangement than the song itself. It also occurred in “leave all the rest” song. I like the music arrangement better than the song. Overall, I like all their music arrangement caused of it is rock and alternative-rock. Talking about the music arrangement, I also had some bands that pretty cool in arranging the music.

Linkin Park is not the only band rock that I like. I still had several bands that I like, but they weren’t taking Linkin Park down as my favorite. The bands that I talk about are also awesome, for instance Simple Plan, My Chemical Romance, Good Charlote, Paramore, Fall Out Boys, Fly Leaf, and Panic at the Disco. From all bands that exist in music entertainment, I take them as my example because they can be the other references for you listening rock music. I am pretty sure that you would like them even though you are not a fan of rock music. At last, all that bands are also rock bands. So, I also like them, but not for became my favorite. Linkin Park is the one in my heart and it will last forever.

I think I have told you all about my favorite band and music. I love rock music and Linkin Park as my favorite band. I listen to this music for make my stress getting out of my mind. You should try listen to this music when you are stress. If your stress getting bigger when you listen to rock music, just stop listening. That’s not my responsibility if you became a real crazy person. I hope it will not happen to you and you will enjoy the rock music.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Friends or Not

Friend is the person who always be in our side when we need help or partner for talking about everything. Friend always care about his/her friend wherever and whenever, no matter what he/she is also no differentiation between them. I had some people that know me well, but i don't know what i supposed to call them. it's like weird when i called them as a friend, because i never walk with them in out of class.

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Who is Bill Gates?


William (Bill) H. Gates was chairman of Microsoft Corporation, the worldwide leader in software, services and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Microsoft had revenues of US$55.12 billion for the fiscal year ending June 2007, and employs more than 78,000 people in 105 countries and regions.

On June 15, 2006, Microsoft announced that effective July 2008 Gates will transition out of a day-to-day role in the company to spend more time on his global health and education work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. After July 2008 Gates will continue to serve as Microsoft’s chairman and an advisor on key development projects. The two-year transition process is to ensure that there is a smooth and orderly transfer of Gates’ daily responsibilities. Effective June 2006, Ray Ozzie has assumed Gates’ previous title as chief software architect and is working side by side with Gates on all technical architecture and product oversight responsibilities at Microsoft. Craig Mundie has assumed the new title of chief research and strategy officer at Microsoft and is working closely with Gates to assume his responsibility for the company’s research and incubation efforts.

Born on Oct. 28, 1955, Gates grew up in Seattle with his two sisters. Their father, William H. Gates II, is a Seattle attorney. Their late mother, Mary Gates, was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent, and chairwoman of United Way International.

Gates attended public elementary school and the private Lakeside School. There, he discovered his interest in software and began programming computers at age 13.

In 1973, Gates entered Harvard University as a freshman, where he lived down the hall from Steve Ballmer, now Microsoft’s chief executive officer. While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer - the MITS Altair.

In his junior year, Gates left Harvard to devote his energies to Microsoft, a company he had begun in 1975 with his childhood friend Paul Allen. Guided by a belief that the computer would be a valuable tool on every office desktop and in every home, they began developing software for personal computers. Gates’ foresight and his vision for personal computing have been central to the success of Microsoft and the software industry.

Under Gates’ leadership, Microsoft’s mission has been to continually advance and improve software technology, and to make it easier, more cost-effective and more enjoyable for people to use computers. The company is committed to a long-term view, reflected in its investment of approximately $7.1 billion on research and development in the 2007 fiscal year.

In 1999, Gates wrote Business @ the Speed of Thought, a book that shows how computer technology can solve business problems in fundamentally new ways. The book was published in 25 languages and is available in more than 60 countries. Business @ the Speed of Thought has received wide critical acclaim, and was listed on the best-seller lists of the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal and Amazon.com. Gates’ previous book, The Road Ahead, published in 1995, held the No. 1 spot on the New York Times’ bestseller list for seven weeks. Top row: Steve Wood (left), Bob Wallace, Jim Lane. Middle row: Bob O’Rear, Bob Greenberg, Marc McDonald, Gordon Letwin. Bottom row: Bill Gates, Andrea Lewis, Marla Wood, Paul Allen. December 7, 1978. Top row: Steve Wood (left), Bob Wallace, Jim Lane. Middle row: Bob O’Rear, Bob Greenberg, Marc McDonald, Gordon Letwin. Bottom row: Bill Gates, Andrea Lewis, Marla Wood, Paul Allen. December 7, 1978.

Gates has donated the proceeds of both books to non-profit organizations that support the use of technology in education and skills development.

In addition to his love of computers and software, Gates founded Corbis, which is developing one of the world’s largest resources of visual information - a comprehensive digital archive of art and photography from public and private collections around the globe. He is also a member of the board of directors of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., which invests in companies engaged in diverse business activities.

Philanthropy is also important to Gates. He and his wife, Melinda, have endowed a foundation with more than $28.8 billion (as of January 2005) to support philanthropic initiatives in the areas of global health and learning, with the hope that in the 21st century, advances in these critical areas will be available for all people. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has committed more than $3.6 billion to organizations working in global health; more than $2 billion to improve learning opportunities, including the Gates Library Initiative to bring computers, Internet Access and training to public libraries in low-income communities in the United States and Canada; more than $477 million to community projects in the Pacific Northwest; and more than $488 million to special projects and annual giving campaigns.

Gates was married on Jan. 1, 1994, to Melinda French Gates. They have three children. Gates is an avid reader, and enjoys playing golf and bridge.

Friday, March 20, 2009

How to recover your lost data from Flash disk which is caused by the Virus

I want to tell you my experience about how to recover the lost data from my flash disk. I had this problem many times when i went to Warnet. When, I plugged my Flash disk (Kingstone data traveler G2) into a computer to upload some pictures, I got all data in my flash lost. There are some folder that have extension *.exe with the same name with my folder I creted before. I click that folder to find out what was inside the folder, but nothing happened. I was thinking that my Folder is hidden caused by the virus. I tried set the computer shows all hidden file, but it useless. My folder didn't apear in my flash. I was very confused with this problem, because there were some datas that i really need and I didn't back up my file yet to my computer in my home. I never thought that this problem will happen to me. I tried to find out in the internet about the solution of this problem and I got some solution from some sites.

For the first time I tried to use that solution ti make my data back, but it didn't work. I got a little confused then I tried to changed some steps from that sites. Here are what I did using "Command Prompt".
  1. click start > run > types "CMD" (without ")
  2. After the Command Prompt came up, types the partition where your flash placed, for example, F: ,G: , H: or others.
  3. the Command prompt will go to your flash partition, then type this; attrib -s -h /s /d
  4. Wait for a minute and then your lost data in your flash caused by the virus will be soon Appeared. Then it's done. You can Save your data in your computer.
That's all what I did. You'd better to try this problem if you got the same problem with me. I hope this writing can help you for then.


 

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